He is especially famous for a bending 40-yard free kick against France in the inaugural match of Tournoi de France 1997 on 3 June 1997. The ball curled so much that the ball boy ten yards to the right ducked instinctively, thinking that the ball would hit him. Instead, it curled back on target, much to the surprise of goalkeeper Fabien Barthez, who just stood in place. This particular attempt has been considered to be the greatest free kick of all time. In 2010, a team of French scientists produced a paper explaining the trajectory of the ball.
Upon signing with Corinthians in January 2010, Roberto Carlos told TV Globo that he hoped to play at the 2010 World Cup and believed his return to Brazilian football may help him return to the national team, as manager Dunga had yet to settle on a left back. However, he was left off the 30-man provisional squad that was submitted to FIFA on 11 May 2010, along with Ronaldinho and Ronaldo. Despite his deep desire to do so, Roberto Carlos was ultimately not named in Dunga's final squad of 23 for the Brazilian squad for the World Cup. Instead, Brazil newcomer Michel Bastos earned a spot for the left back position.
Leander Adrian Paes OLY (/peɪs/ PAYSS; born 17 June 1973) is an Indian former professional tennis player. He is regarded as one of the greatest doubles tennis players ever. He holds the record for the most doubles wins in the Davis Cup. Paes won eight men's doubles and ten mixed doubles Grand Slam titles. He holds a career Grand Slam in men's doubles and mixed doubles, and achieved the rare men's/mixed double at the 1999 Wimbledon Championships. His mixed doubles Wimbledon title in 2010 made him the second man (after Rod Laver) to win Wimbledon titles in three decades.
He began the 2010 season in good form, again winning the Australian Open mixed doubles title with Cara Black. This was the pair's third consecutive Grand Slam final and the fourth overall.
5. It is altogether likely that the education will still go on untilmany new combinations which to our ears would be meaningless willbecome a part of the ordinary vernacular of the art. Indeed, a writerquite recently (Julius Klauser, in "The Septonnate") points out avast[Pg 18] amount of musical material already contained within our tonalsystems which as yet is entirely unused. The new chords and relationsthus suggested are quite in line with the additions made by Wagner tothe vocabulary of his day.
Here was the culmination of Greek musical art upon the purely artisticand æsthetic side. Then followed a period of philosophizing, theoryand mathematical deduction, which extended to the end of theAlexandrian schools, about 300 A.D. The limits of the present work donot permit tracing this course of progress with the amplitude whichits relation to liberal education would otherwise warrant, or even tothe extent which its bearing upon the present ideals of the tonal artwould justify, were not the range of subjects indispensable to even asummarized treatment of musical history so wide as it has now become.But the general features of the different steps in the Greek music arethe following:
China has had an art of music from extremely remote periods, andsingularly sagacious ideas concerning the art were advanced there verylong ago, at a time when Europe and most other parts of the world werestill in the darkness of barbarism. For example: There is a saying ofthe Emperor Tschun, about 2300 B.C., "Teach the children of the great;thereby reached through thy[Pg 74] care they will become mild andreasonable, and the unmanageable ones able to receive dignitieswithout arrogance or assumption. This teaching must thou embody inpoems, and sing them therewith to suitable melodies and with the playof instrumental accompaniment. The music must follow the sense of thewords; if they are simple and natural then also must the music beeasy, unforced and without pretension. Music is the expression ofsoul-feeling. If now the soul of the musician be virtuous, so alsowill his music become noble and full of virtuous expression, and willset the souls of men in union with those of the spirits in heaven."(Quoted by Ambros.)
NE of the earliest developments of popular music on the continent wasthat of the Chansons de Geste ("Songs of Action"), which were, ineffect, great national epics. The period of this activity was fromabout 800 to 1100 or 1200, and the greatest productions were the"Songs of Roland," the "Song of Antioch," etc., translations of whichmay be found in collections of mediæval romances. The socialconditions out of which these songs grew have been well summarized byM. Léon Gautier, in his "Les Épopées Françaises": "If we transportourselves in imagination into Gaul in the seventh century, and castingour eyes to the right, the left, and to all parts, we undertake torender to ourselves an exact account of the state in which we find thenational poetry, the following will be the spectacle which will meetour gaze: Upon one hand in Amorican Brittany there are a group ofpopular poets who speak a Celtic dialect, and sing upon the harpcertain legends, certain fables of Celtic origin. They form a leagueapart, and do not mix at all in the poetic movement of the greatGallo-Roman country. They are the popular singers of an abased race,of a conquered people. Toward the end of the twelfth century we seetheir legends emerge from[Pg 116] their previous obscurity and conquer asudden and astonishing popularity, which endured throughout all theremainder of the Middle Ages. But in the seventh century they had noprofound influence in Gaul, and their voice had no echo except beyondthe boundary straits among the harpers and singers of England, Walesand Ireland.
HE wealth and commercial activity of the Low Countries, known asFlanders, Brabant and Hainault, had now become greater than that ofany other part of Europe, Italy perhaps excepted. The organization ofthe Communes, which began, indeed, in France as early as the tenthcentury, naturally reached a greater extent during the crusades, whenso many of the higher and more energetic nobility were absent in theHoly Land, since the defense and order of the people at home had to bemaintained by those who were left behind. Under these circumstances,the power naturally drifted into the strongest hands available, whichquite as naturally were those of the capable merchants andmanufacturers of the burgher class. Hence the condition of society,while much hampered by the restrictions of the guilds requiringchildren to be brought up to the occupation of the parents, wasnevertheless more favorable to the freedom of the individual than atany previous period. These social elements combining with the wealthaforesaid, and the public spirit which has always distinguished themercantile classes engaged in foreign commerce upon a large scale,united to form an environment favorable to the development of art;and, as music was the form of art which happened to be most in[Pg 161] demandat the time, the effects of the stimulating environment wereimmediately seen. It was perhaps partly in consequence of the burghercharacter of the classes most engaged in music in Flanders that theform music there developed should have been so exclusively vocal. Allthe work of this school, extending over two centuries, was eitherexclusively vocal, or written with main consideration for the voice,the instrumental additions, if any, having never taken on adescriptive or colorative character.
Before 1600 the organ had attained its maturity, and had becomefurnished with its distinctive characteristics as we have it at thepresent time. As this instrument, from the nature of its tonequalities and its peculiar limitation to serious music of graverhythm, is naturally suited to the service of the Church, it hasremained till the present day in the province where it had alreadyfirmly established itself at the time now under consideration. Theorigin of the organ is very difficult to ascertain. There are tracesof some sort of wind instrument before the Christian era. Theso-called hydraulic organ was probably one in which water was used toperfect the air-holding qualities of the wind chest, in the samemanner as now in gas holders. One of the earliest mediæval referencesto organs is to that sent King Pepin, of France, father ofCharlemagne, in 742 by Constantine, emperor of Byzantium at that time.This instrument, says the old chronicler, had brass pipes, blown withbellows bags; it was struck with the hands and feet. It was the firstof this kind seen in France.
According to Julianus, a Spanish bishop who flourished in 450, theorgan was in common use in churches[Pg 202] at that time. In 822 an organ wassent to Charlemagne by the Caliph Haroun Alraschid, made by an Arabianmaker. This instrument was placed in a church at Aix-la-Chapelle.There were good organ builders in Venice as early as 822, and before900 there was an organ in the cathedral at Munich. In the ninthcentury organs had become common in England, and in the tenth theEnglish prelate, St. Dunstan, erected one in Malmesbury Abbey, ofwhich the pipes were of brass. The instruments of that time wereextremely crude.
In his studies for a history of musical notation, Dr. Hugo Riemannquotes an extract from an anonymous manuscript of the tenth century,in which the author gives directions for a set of organ pipes. "Takefirst," he says, "ten pipes of a proper dimension and of equal lengthand size. Divide the first pipe into nine parts; eight of these willbe the length of the second. Dividing the length of this again intonine parts, eight of these will be the proper length of the third;dividing the first pipe into four parts, three of them will be thelength of the fourth; taking the first pipe as three parts, two ofthem will be the length of the fifth; eight-ninths of this again willgive the proper length of the sixth; eight-ninths of this, the lengthof the seventh; one-half the first, the length of the eighth, oroctave." This gives a major scale, with the Pythagorean third,consisting of two great steps, which was too sharp to be consonant.The semitone between the third and the fourth is too small, as is alsothat between the seventh and eighth. The modern way of making thepipes of smaller diameter as they become shorter, had evidently notbeen thought of. Nevertheless, these directions are very important,since they throw positive light upon the tuning of the variousintervals, the pipe lengths and[Pg 204] proportions affording accuratedeterminations of the musical relations intended. 2b1af7f3a8